Fountain Plaza

Fountain Plaza Interpretive Signage was funded as part of the City of Buffalo Cars on Main Street project though a 2011 Transportation Initiatives Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) III grant to the City of Buffalo. 

Creation of a New Downtown Neighborhood – Fountain Plaza

Click Here to open the sign posted on the SE corner of Main and Chippewa Streets 

Pioneer Beginnings

The west side of Main between Huron and Chippewa Streets was settled in the first decade after Joseph Ellicott’s 1804 survey.  Elias Ransom, following his brother Asa (later of Clarence) to Buffalo before 1800, bought lots at the corner of Huron Street in 1811, where he later kept a tavern.  St Paul’s Church was organized in that tavern in February of 1817. 

Dr. Ebenezer Johnson arrived in Buffalo in 1810 at the age of 23.  He competed with Buffalo’s first physician, Dr. Cyrenious Chapin, reducing the cost of medical care in the young village of Buffalo.  Johnson purchased inner lot 63 in 1814, just south of Chippewa Street, and built a white wooden home with a well-regarded garden.  He later became a successful merchant, was instrumental in dredging Buffalo’s harbor, and in 1832, served as the first Mayor of the City of Buffalo.

Reuben Heacock came to Buffalo in 1811 and was a business partner with store keeper Abel Grosvenor.  He purchased inner lot 62 in 1813 and is credited with expanding the canal system from the Erie Canal to the Hydraulics neighborhood in 1827.

Asa Fox was a silversmith, watch maker and jeweler.  Arriving in 1810, he purchased inner lot 61 just in time to see his home burned by the British with the village of Buffalo in 1813.

The Holland Land Company Video Click Here to be taken to video. 

Thank you to Stephen Drew, producer of Low Bridge Productions of Rochester, NY for sharing the video explaining how the Holland Land Company obtained the land in Western New York and sold lots in the village of Buffalo to early settlers.  Visit http://eriecanalvideos.com/videos.html to learn more, or see "The Grand Erie Canal - Video Classroom Collection ",  21 of their most popular topical video clips that are available for private use on DVD or download on Amazon.com  (special licensing rates available for schools).

Below is a map of the village of Buffalo, before the 1813 fire.  It was copied by Charles North from an 1813 sketch by merchant Juba Storrs.  

To see a larger version of the map image, click here.   Thank you to the Buffalo & Erie County Library for allowing us to use this image.  For more information from BECL on the conservation of the map, please click here.   


Below is a map of Buffalo Village Inner lots as surveyed by Joseph Ellicott.  From the History of Buffalo and Erie County Vol. 2, page 31, H. Perry Smith.

By the 1830s, William Crawford ran a store at the corner of Chippewa and Main.  David M. Day, publisher of Buffalo’s second newspaper and a printer, lived next door.  Dr. Ebenezer Johnson had moved to Delaware Avenue where he created Johnson Park.  His Main Street lot became home to North Presbyterian Church in 1847. Part of Elias Ransom’s lot became the Universalist Church of the Messiah in 1866.  By 1872 the five original lots laid out by Joseph Ellicott were broken into over 25 parcels, with commercial uses beginning to remake this residential neighborhood of two to four story brick buildings.

The Universalist Church of the Messiah at 554 Main; F. C. Martin Bicycle Manufacturing Co., courtesy of the Buffalo History Museum

The Universalist Church of the Messiah at 554 Main had a short, interesting life.  After four years of operation it burned and was rebuilt.  Twenty years later, the congregation relocated and leased the church building to the F. C. Martin & Company and it was used for bicycle manufacturing and sales.

554 Main; F. C. Martin Bicycle Manufacturing Co. 

554 Main; Interior. F. C. Martin Bicycle Manufacturing Co, courtesy of the Buffalo History Museum


Flint & Kent

The Flint & Kent store began when Benjamin Fitch opened a dry goods store in 1832. This small business was located at 288 Main Street. As time went on, Fitch decided it was time to let the business grow. He wanted to invite partners to join the company. In 1836, the store was called Fitch, Marvin and Company. In 1856 William B. Flint joined the company. Then in 1865 Henry M. Kent joined the ever growing company. By the time Kent joined the business Benjamin Fitch had retired. This meant the store was now called Flint, Kent, & Stone. Stone would later sell to Howard. This last partner did not last long due to illness and he sold his shares to the remaining owners, Flint and Kent. The company became known as Flint & Kent and was located at 261 Main Street.

Flint and Kent began to grow rapidly. They outgrew their headquarters on 261 Main Street and began planning to build a bigger store at 554 Main St in 1897. This was the location of the old Universalist Church for the Messiah which was built in 1866, caught fire in 1870 and was rebuilt, and the congregation relocated to a new church building in 1892. The Universalist Church leased the structure to the bike company H.C. Martin & Co in 1894. Flint and Kent decided the location of the church would make the perfect spot for the new headquarters. They tore down the church and enlisted one of Buffalo’s top architects to design the new store.

The accomplished architect was Kent’s own son, Edward Kent. He designed many prominent buildings in Buffalo. Some of his works include the Otto Store, which became the Theatre Place Building; the original Temple Beth Zion, Unitarian Universalist Church and many residences throughout the city. Edward Kent was also known for forming the Buffalo Society of Architects. This was the first of its kind in the city. Sadly, Edward Kent met his demise after a two month holiday abroad. Edward Kent was making his way home on the Titanic and he was not one of the lucky ones to survive the sinking.

The original success of Flint & Kent was in the dry goods business but this changed as the company grew in recognition. The store became known for “ready-to-wear clothing for all occasions.” The year 1932 proved to be a big year for Flint & Kent. Their headquarters had four floors of merchandise. They also had over 46 branch department stores, all larger than the original store. The year 1932 was also the 100th anniversary since the company began. Lastly, 1932 was the year Flint and Kent sold the business to Charles Jack Hann, whose father owned Sattler’s. Winthrop Kent remained as the store manager after the purchase. No major changes were made to company operations. The store appearance was updated to appear more modern.

Hann sold the store in 1956 to the upscale clothing store, Sample Inc., but they occupied the store only until 1959. Sample Inc. sold to Huron Stores Inc. which went bankrupt after a short time. The downtown store was closed and sold in 1964. In 1965 the first floor was leased out to William T. Grant so his store could expand their downtown location. The building which housed Flint & Kent was knocked down to create Fountain Plaza.

 Flint and Kent, Courtesy of the Buffalo History Museum


Buffalo Optical Company

Buffalo Optical Company opened in 1893.  Its founder, William Henry White, was the first major league baseball player to wear glasses.  During his 10 year pitching career, Will White won 229 games and lost 166 with a batting average of .580.  No one has broken his record of starting and finishing 75 games in 1879.  After retiring due to arm trouble, White studied optics in Corning, NY and opened Buffalo Optical on Chippewa Street.  By 1895 Buffalo Optical was on Main Street.  As one of Buffalo’s longest-lived companies, it became a tenant in the Hippodrome Building, was relocated during Buffalo Savings Bank’s 1984 expansion, and is now located on Delaware Avenue.

William Henry White, founder of Buffalo Optical Company


The Hippodrome

The Hippodrome Theater was the first movie house in the city of Buffalo, part of the theater chain owned by Michael Shea. The Hippodrome was designed by Leon H. Lempert Jr., opening in 1914. The Hippodrome, named for the ancient Greek stadiums used for horse and chariot races, entertained the people of Buffalo just as its namesake entertained the ancient Greeks. The Hippodrome had a 2,800 seat capacity with one movie screen.

In 1951 the Hippodrome was renamed Center Theatre and was renovated by new owner, Michael J. DeAngelis. Suburban theaters were becoming more competitive and DeAngelis wanted the Hippodrome to have a modern look. The original marquee was taken down and replaced. The foyer was also updated.

In the 1960s, Center Theatre had rights to almost all Warner Brothers/Seven Arts/Hammer Films movies. Regardless, Center Theatre closed down in 1962. The building itself was demolished in 1983 for construction of Fountain Plaza.



Thank you to the Buffalo History Museum for making photo images available for use on this project: 


Hippodrome construction:


Night View, 1917


Hippodrome exterior:


Postcard image showing early tenant Buffalo Optical:


F. H. Woolworth Co. as storefront tenant


Hippodrome Building prior to Fountain Plaza construction, approximately 1980. Thank you to City of Buffalo Office of Strategic Planning for use of the following images:

From left to right, Gutmann’s, Center Theatre.


From left to right, Grants, former Flint & Kent, misc., Center Theatre building.


Fountain Plaza – Buffalo’s Rockefeller Center

Thank you to William M. E. Clarkson, Fred Fadel, Jim Militello, Peter Zaleski and Larry Rubin for their assistance collecting this information about the creation of Fountain Plaza.

Buffalo in the 1970s was reeling from losses of jobs, population and businesses.  Northern downtown grew shabby as tenants relocated and key properties fell into City hands due to tax foreclosure.  The City struggled to devise a new identity; plans came together later in the decade.  The long pursuit of rapid transit was finally answered with the Urban Mass Transportation Administration’s commitment to fund a demonstration project for light rail rapid transit on Main Street in 1976, and a funding agreement in 1978.  A blueprint to create a sustainable Theatre District was published in 1978.  Downtown retail between Court and Genesee Streets remained a community asset, but the Genesee to Chippewa blocks of Main were an issue - stores were going dark, and new tenants wouldn’t commit to the declining neighborhood.  A tipping point was reached when Buffalo Savings Bank considered building new office space out of downtown.

With the help of federal tools to assist depressed cities, Buffalo developed a plan for a new Main Genesee neighborhood.  With congressional assistance, they secured a commitment from Hyatt Corporation to build a new Hyatt Hotel at Genesee Street.  Buffalo Savings Bank announced plans for a new headquarters building adjacent to their original gold domed building in 1979.  Liberty Bank announced in 1980 their willingness to build a new building in the Main Genesee neighborhood, if the City could agree to rebuild the blocks between Genesee and Chippewa. 

The City reached out to the community for guidance in development of four new buildings, a large urban plaza and a new parking ramp.  Mayor James Griffin invited Graphic Controls CEO William M. E. Clarkson to chair a Main-Genesee Task Group (MGTG) to represent the City, to work with the five architects and their clients, and to recommend building site plans and designs that would make the most of this rare opportunity to create a new downtown neighborhood.  Clarkson agreed and brought on contractor Henry Balling, downtown leader and attorney Robert D. Fernbach, Acting Dean of the UB School of Architecture Alfred Price, artist Virginia Tillou, and NFTA chairman Allen Dekdebrun to serve as task group members.  Staffed by successive Community Development Commissioners Larry Quinn, Jim Militello, Fred Fadel and Larry Rubin, from 1980 to 1991, the MGTG influenced the architects and clients to build projects not just for their own use, but to function as a unit, and to be a new place for downtown activity that would make the community proud.

Clarkson and the City team wanted a space that would be an outdoor home for Downtown with a year round identity.  Goals were established for a public ice rink, community Christmas Tree, major fountain/ artwork element, and a public plaza all connected by second floor pedestrian bridges.  Design work had progressed on the four private buildings, but the Task Group convinced the owners to submit their designs to wind tunnel testing to be sure they would lessen the most difficult weather condition in downtown – wind rushing off Lake Erie.  Design adjustments were made to assure the building entries, public plazas, and ice rink would be visitor-friendly, even in January.

The City held a competition to name the $100 million Main- Genesee development; Fountain Plaza was the winning entry.  The Task Group proceeded to design a public plaza, and outlined a site plan for an additional building to complete the Chippewa side of the block, but a developer did not immediately come forward.  The City cleared the site in 1983, planting grass for a temporary lawn until the climate was right for additional development.  In 1987, Key Bank announced plans to develop Key Center.  They searched for an experienced developer and selected CitiCom of Toronto. Although Key Bank secured sufficient tenant interest for one tower, the City was able to support construction of the shell for a second planned tower, allowing design and construction of the public plaza and ice rink to proceed at the same time.

Clarkson and the task group worked with the City to design the plaza, rink and fountain; raising public and private funds for their construction.  The fountain was constructed with limited funds and “sweat-equity” with the director of the Buffalo Arts Commission David More, Stuart Dawson of Sasaki Associates, designers of the Fountain Plaza public space, and Clarkson personally selecting individual granite blocks from remnants at the quarry in Minnesota, and arranging for them to be shipped to Buffalo by rail.  The skating rink is named Rotary Rink, in honor of the Rotary Club of Buffalo, who helped make the project a reality with their contribution.  Fountain Plaza, Rotary Rink, and Key Center opened to the public in 1991.  The second tower at Key Center was built out in 2000, fully completing the Fountain Plaza project.


Thank you to the City of Buffalo Office of Strategic Planning for making these images available for this project.

Views before Fountain Plaza Development:

SW corner of Chippewa and Main

West side of Main, mid-block

NW corner of Huron and Main

Project Organization



Early Urban Design sketches

Early designs assumed demolition of the Genesee Building as part of Hyatt Hotel development, and possible demolition of the 500 Block of Main Street.


The City worked to include a public ice rink and 2nd floor walkway system into Fountain Plaza.  The public spaces were designed to work with adjacent public spaces.


Main Street Metro Rail and Main-Genesee construction 1982.


Norstar Building (now Bank of America) is open, 1983

The “Northblock” is cleared for future development by the City, as a commitment to complete the project.


The “Northblock” is planted for park space, awaiting future development.  First home of the Thursday at the Square concert series, 1985.


Announcement of Key Center Development by Key Bank, 1987. Brian Brisbin of Brisbin, Brook, Beynon Architects on the top, and Peter Zaleski of Key Bank on the bottom. Images provided by Peter Zaleski.

Key Center model.


Construction of the fountain and reflecting pool/ ice rink, 1991. Courtesy City of Buffalo Office of Strategic Planning.




 A New Financial District

Click Here to open the sign posted on the NW corner of Main and HuronStreets


The north Genesee Square (now Roosevelt Plaza) neighborhood of Main Street was partially settled before the burning of Buffalo in 1813.  Three residents were remembered on the east side (site of M&T Center): Manly Colton, who had a hardware store in the 200 block of Main the 1830’s, the Campbell home and hatter shop, and  a cooper by the name of Curtan.  It wouldn’t be until the Erie Canal expedited western migration from the East coast through Buffalo in 1825, that the Holland Land Company would register sale of the lots on this block, all to residents of other parts of the village. 


The Erie’s Cities Video  Click here to be taken to the video.

Thank you to Stephen Drew, producer of Low Bridge Productions of Rochester, NY for sharing the video explaining how the Erie Canal linked Western New York with New York City -- greatly benefitting the development of both.  Visithttp://eriecanalvideos.com/videos.html to learn more, or see " The Grand Erie Canal - Video Classroom Collection ",  21 of their most popular topical video clips that are available for private use on DVD or download on Amazon.com (special licensing rates available for schools).




Samuel Welch’s Recollections of Buffalo in the 1830s mentions only a two-story frame home in the block during this period of wild speculation and growth in Buffalo.  By the 1870s it was fully built up with the original five Holland Land Company lots separated into over 30 mostly residential parcels.  By 1881 the three to five story brick buildings held commercial and manufacturing businesses with some upper floor residential.  Many businesses supported the building of Buffalo - a wood yard, carpenter shops, wall paper dealers, tin shops, stoves, carpets, paints, and furnaces. 


Buffalo Savings Bank

With new railroad connections to the east coast in the 1840s, Buffalo’s population surged.  Industrious workers needed a secure storage place for their savings.  News stories cautioned tales of sneak thieves making off in the night with hidden cash.  Buffalo Savings Bank was created in 1846 for the common man, the twelfth savings bank in the state and the first in Buffalo.  The state charter specified its purpose was to receive deposits “from tradesmen, clerks, mechanics, laborers, minors, servants and others.”

The Bank’s original building at Washington and Broadway burned in 1865, with only the vault remaining. The Bank used a temporary location for 40 years. Buffalo Savings Bank needed to expand and modernize by the 1890s.  After initially determining to stay near Lafayette Square, the trustees agreed to relocate to Main at Genesee in 1897.  10 architects were invited to a building design completion, and Green & Wicks, the company of Buffalo architect E.B Green, was selected to build a new structure for “not over $300,000.  Construction began in 1899.

Green & Wicks design was meant to project stability, security, and aspiration.  Buffalo Savings Bank would be a technological marvel of engineering fitting the theme of the times it symbolized.  It contains 400 tons of steel, which was extravagant for the time period when many buildings were constructed with wood.  The Bank contained more stone than any other building at the time in the country. Each column took 3 months to complete.  A smaller interior dome was encased inside the exterior domed roof, and a law office was hidden between the two structures. (Scan QR code to be linked to WGRZ video tour) The bank was finished without its iconic gilded roof, added in 1953.  This impressive monument was a testament to banking and the wealth of Buffalo.

Detroit Publishing Co.,1904, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/det1994010074/PP/

The murals that adorn the ceilings today were completed in 1926, painted by Frances, Davidson & Savage Painting Company.  At the top of the dome is a quote from ancient Chinese philosopher Confucius, which reads, “Virtue is the root, and wealth is the flower.” This quote was chosen to represent the principles that Buffalo Savings Bank found important, that virtue and growth would instill security within its customers.  The additional murals covering the inner dome depict the twelve zodiac signs, and demonstrate the passage of time. The golden age of Buffalo is represented with four panels: Commerce, Industry, the Arts, and Power; displaying images of the Buffalo harbor, steel mills, Albright Gallery and Niagara Falls to depict these categories.


Thank you to M&T bank for providing these mural images:

Click Here for Secrets of Buffalo Goldome Revealed – thank you to WGRZ TV for this footage of hidden offices between the domes.

Buffalo Savings Bank continued to expand over the years with additions in 1931, 1941, 1955 and 1967.  The Bank was a major tenant in the Genesee Building.  Buffalo Savings Bank had grown out of space and was considering a new building in the late 1970s, considering a lower cost suburban option vs. expansion adjacent to their iconic gold domed building.  Downtown was selected because of the promise of adjacent downtown redevelopment resulting from the light rail rapid transit project, and importantly, because of support from a $7 million Urban Development Action Grant.  The grant brought higher downtown development costs closer to market rates.  Buffalo Savings bank agreed to build a $55,000,000 twelve story headquarters building between the original bank building and Chippewa Street.  Relocation and demolition was planned for the buildings between Buffalo Savings Bank and Chippewa Street in 1981, the Liberty Shoe Store, Buffalo Optical, Tanke’s Jewelers, and Brownie’s Army and Navy Store.  All of these businesses found nearby locations downtown. Ground was broken May 5, 1981.

Images from City of Buffalo Office of Strategic Planning:

East side of Main before construction.

Wind tunnel test results showed the first concept for the new building design created high wind conditions for pedestrians.  The redesigned building did not worsen wind conditions.



Demolition of early additions to Buffalo Savings Bank on the Washington Street side

Employees moved into the new tower in 1983.  The 1967 building adjacent to the domed building was demolished and the elevated plaza was built in 1984, completing the Goldome Bank project.


While the headquarters building was under construction, Goldome expanded into new markets, acquiring nine banks and becoming the second largest saving bank in the country, doing business in 40 states.  As the Savings and Loan Crisis of the 1980’s deepened, Goldome eventually became a casualty and was dissolved by the Federal deposit Insurance Corporation 1991.  Goldome’s assets were split between Key Bank and First Empire (now known as M&T Bank Corp.)  M&T Bank purchased the buildings later that year, renaming the complex M&T Center.  In 1998 M&T invested $500,000 to refurbish the gold leafed dome. The building’s 15 feet high finial was loaded into a truck and recoated with gold leaf at Robert Marshall Studios in Wexford, PA.


Across Genesee Square

James Chapin purchased Inner lot 58, the parcel that would become Genesee House (now the Hyatt Hotel) in 1811.  Originally, the site was home to the Genesee House, a way station for farmers and their livestock on their way to market.  In the 1830s it was the only structure on the block, constructed as a wood frame farmhouse.  The plot even included space for grazing animals and fit in with the contemporary market atmosphere of the city. As Buffalo filled with west-bound travelers, Genesee House was rebuilt in 1842 as a five story brick hotel.   It was rebuilt larger in 1881 and became The Genesee Hotel. 

 Genesee Hotel is featured in Main & Genesee panoramic photo, by W. H. Brandel, 1911. Library of Congress


Genesee Building

Opened in 1923 at a cost of $2 million (over $27 million in 2015 dollars), the Genesee Building was designed by Buffalo-based architecture firm Green & Wicks as a steel framed, Renaissance-Revival office building .  At the time of its opening, it was the 4th tallest office building in the city.  The Genesee Hotel was torn down for the construction of the new Genesee Building in 1922. At the time of its opening, it was the 4th tallest office building in the city.

The building anticipated Buffalo’s downtown banking center shifting north during the building boom that swept through downtown in the early 1920’s.  Despite the banking core never moving north of Court Street, the building filled to capacity quite quickly, making the corner of Main and Genesee one of the most desirable locations in the city, a centerpiece of the burgeoning north end of downtown. The area was home to many upscale shops and theatres, and was recalled as a “hot spot” by one former tenant of the Genesee Building.


The Genesee Building was financed by Norman Clement, a local publisher, and Sheldon Weed, the owner of Weed and Co., a hardware store which occupied a large space on the building’s first floor, and stayed under their ownership until 1948.  In postwar years the building changed hands between out-of-town ownership groups.  It returned to local ownership in 1962, when Buffalo native Leon Lawrence Sidell was convinced that redevelopment of the north Retail and Theatre Districts was imminent.  Sidell’s hopes were not quickly realized.  Vacancy north of Huron increased as businesses grew in the suburbs.  The Genesee Building went into bankruptcy in 1976.

Main Genesee area, November 19, 1973. SUNY Buffalo State Archives & Special Collections, Courier Express Collection

Hyatt Hotel Development

The City of Buffalo launched a plan to construct a new neighborhood between Chippewa and Genesee Streets by securing the interest of the Hyatt Regency Company to develop a hotel near the theater, business and Convention Center districts.  Original plans called for demolition of the Genesee Building and construction of a Hyatt Hotel glass tower.  This created some angst in the community, which was desperate for redevelopment, but conflicted about losing the iconic green-copper roofed landmark.

Early Main- Genesee project model showing proposed Hyatt Hotel with a traditional glass tower, straddling Huron Street.  Image from City of Buffalo Office of Strategic Planning


Aerial View, Main-Genesee Area.  Buffalo Savings Bank has acquired and demolished buildings for expansion.  City of Buffalo Office of Strategic Planning

Local businessman Paul Snyder agreed in December 1980 to be the Hyatt Hotel developer.  By October, architects Gruzen & Partners determined that the Genesee Building could be saved and be made part of the hotel project.  The use of Genesee Street, already blocked by the Convention Center, for the hotel atrium and banquet center was seen as a compromise worth making to retain the historic Genesee Building.  Using all the tools available to them for project financing including Federal grants, commitments from current and future property owners, the City was able to put together an interdependent project including two bank headquarters (Buffalo Savings and Liberty), a new parking garage (Augspurger), public recreation space to be anchored in the by two future buildings, all linked by a 2nd floor pedestrian bridge network. 



July 18, 1982, by Paul Pasquarello, SUNY Buffalo State Archives & Special Collections, Courier Express Collection


View of Hyatt Hotel construction from Main and Huron – Office of Strategic Planning

View of Hyatt Hotel construction from Pearl and Huron Street – Office of Strategic Planning


Hyatt Hotel atrium construction, 1983. Image from City of Buffalo Office of Strategic Planning

The Hyatt Regency Buffalo opened to the public on February 12th, 1984 and immediately became a cornerstone of the Fountain Plaza section of Main Street. Today the Hyatt Regency operates in the building alongside other tenants including Spa Alexis and E.B. Green’s Steak House, consistently voted as one of the nation’s best.  Its 396 rooms make the Hyatt one of the city’s largest hotels.  The building has been continually updated including a $13.3 million update in 2007 and another $3 million in 2015.   As Main Street again takes on a new shape with return of automobile traffic to Main Street, the Genesee Building has remained a constant.

Main Genesee Task Group at work.  Images from Room 920, City of Buffalo Office of Strategic Planning

L to R:  Fred Fadel (City Urban Design Group), Stuart Dawson (chief designer, Sasaki Associates), Henry Balling (contractor), Al Price (UB School of Architecture and Planning), Larry Quinn (Commissioner, Dept. Community Development), Will Clarkson (MGTG chair)


L to R:  Al Price, Stuart Dawson, Alan Ward (Sasaki Associates Designer), Fred Fadel, Virginia Tillou, Will Clarkson, possibly Henry Balling




The Main Street History signs are a cooperative venture of the downtown community.  Buffalo Place Inc. was honored to work with so many talented and committed individuals, and we thank you for your efforts:

Our advisory committee of residents, tenants and downtown advocates for their passion, oversight, advice and patience: Anne Conable, Angela Keppel, Steve Carmina, Sandra Wilkins, Robert VonLangen, and Elizabeth A Vealey

University of Buffalo History, and Arts Management Masters students whose Spring 2015 Field Work project initiated the500 and Fountain Plaza Block signs: Thomas Buttaccio, Alyssa M. McQuir, Xiaochen Chang and Aakashi Patolawala.  The students identified the stories to be told, collected numerous historic resources, proposed designs and drafted text for the signs and website. 

Buffalo Place Interns Elias Reden and Mitchell LaRosa for their assistance identifying images, doing research and in drafting text.

Adjacent property owners and contacts who were generous with their images, information and time


A special thank you to the agencies who took so much time to provide their exclusive images and videos:

City of Buffalo   

Office of Strategic Planning